“The majority of my confession has been suggested or dictated by Ushakov. Comrade Eikhe was arrested on April 29, 1938 on the basis of slanderous materials, without the sanction of the [State] Prosecutor of the USSR. The content of the speech reached the West through a circuitous route. Both the Trotskyites and the rightist opportunists were politically isolated.
Later, Stalin’s regime created a document that suggested that Rudzutak publicly declared his guilt, but this has been proven to be a false document. Many top ranking leaders in the politburo such as Zhdanov and Kaganovich sometimes disagreed with Stalin, and Stalin didn’t always get his proposals passed.
It is clear that these matters were decided by Stalin, and that without his orders and his sanction Yezhov could not have done this. The 17th Congress was selected for investigations because it was known as "the Congress of Victors" in the country of "victorious socialism" and so the enormous number of "enemies" among the participants demanded explanation. The protocol of the session of the Collegium of the Supreme Military Court contains the following statement by Rudzutak: “… The only plea which [the defendant] places before the court is that the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) be informed that there is in the NKVD an as yet not liquidated center which is craftily manufacturing cases, which forces innocent persons to confess.
The basic structure of the speech was as follows: On 30 June 1956, the Central Committee of the party issued a resolution, "On Overcoming the Cult of the Individual and Its Consequences", which served as the party's official and public pronouncement on the Stalin era. He points out how the ‘confessions’ of those executed were the only ‘evidence’ for their guilt – confessions that were more often than not a product of torture. personality cult to make his rule unchallengeable. The photographs were delivered to him. On February 2, 1940, Eikhe was brought before the court. The commission presented evidence that in 1937 and 1938 (the peak of the period known as the Great Purge), over one-and-a-half million individuals were arrested for "anti-Soviet activities", of whom over 680,500 were executed. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. During all these 30 years I have never heard one word of rudeness from any comrade. Rudzutak publicly denied the confessions that had been extorted out of him under torture. The same also was done with the leader of the reserve net, supposedly created by Bukharin in 1935. “The Party led a great political-ideological struggle against those in its own ranks who proposed anti-Leninist theses, who represented a political line hostile to the Party and to the cause of socialism. I know that I perish because of vile and mean work of enemies of the Party and of the people, who have fabricated the provocation against me.”. Comrade [Yan] Rudzutak, a candidate-member of the Politbiuro, a member of the Party since 1905 who spent 10 years in a Tsarist hard-labor camp, completely retracted in court the confession forced from him.  The "Secret Speech" was therefore publicly read at literally thousands of meetings, making the colloquial name of the report something of a misnomer. Baranowska allowed him to take the document home to read. Let us consider for a moment what would have happened if in 1928-1929 the political line of right deviation had prevailed among us, or orientation toward “cotton-dress industrialization,” or toward the kulak, etc. After two and a half months, in March 1923, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin sent Stalin the following letter: “TO COMRADE STALIN (COPIES FOR: KAMENEV AND ZINOVIEV): “You permitted yourself a rude summons of my wife to the telephone and a rude reprimand of her. Stalin originated the concept “enemy of the people.” This term automatically made it unnecessary that the ideological errors of a man or men engaged in a controversy be proven. It was never disclosed to Western communist party members by the nomenklatura, and most Western communists only became aware of the details of the text after The New York Times (5 June 1956), Le Monde (6 June 1956) and The Observer (10 June 1956) published versions of the full text. However, Khrushchev does have a point in pointing out the extent of Stalin’s repression and the lack of legality surrounding it. “Because of a short letter which I had written in words dictated to me by Vladimir Ilyich by permission of the doctors, Stalin allowed himself yesterday an unusually rude outburst directed at me.  Nevertheless, the full text was not officially published in the Soviet press until 1989.
The speech was a milestone in the Khrushchev Thaw. We would not now have a powerful heavy industry; we would not have the kolkhozes; we would find ourselves disarmed and weak in a capitalist encirclement. Written under the guidance of Mikhail Suslov, it did not mention Khrushchev's specific allegations. It made possible the use of the cruelest repression, violating all norms of revolutionary legality, against anyone who in any way disagreed with Stalin, against those who were only suspected of hostile intent, against those who had bad reputations. At first I wrote my [own] name in, and then I was instructed to insert [Valery] Mezhlauk’s. Overall, evidence suggests that Stalin was initially lukewarm towards the cult growing around him, but did little to oppose it, as he probably recognized it’s importance to his absolute power. The speech was leaked to the west by the Israeli intelligence agency, Shin Bet, which received it from the Polish journalist Viktor Grievsky. They were merely stigmatized [as enemies]. Additionally, there is some reason to doubt whether Lenin’s Testament was actually written by Lenin himself. But we have to remember that Khrushchev had just taken power in a coup, and demonizing Stalin was important for consolidating power, even if that meant lying and exaggerating. I beg you to protect me from rude interference with my private life and from vile invectives and threats. In response, they formed the anti-revisionist movement, criticizing the post-Stalin leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for allegedly deviating from the path of Lenin and Stalin.. Stalin's order for the persecution to be enhanced: the. For other uses, see, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide protests, Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), "Soviets, After 33 Years, Publish Khrushchev's Anti-Stalin Speech", "1964: On Khrushchov's Phoney Communism and Its Historical Lessons for the World", "The Secret Speech–On the Cult of Personality", Complete text of the speech (in English) in a contemporary pamphlet, with the original commentary by Nicolaevsky, Complete text of the speech (in Russian) in a contemporary pamphlet. There were other similar incidents. A [second] declaration of Eikhe has been preserved, which he sent to Stalin on October 27, 1939.
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