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The Moon may have been formed after a collision between the early Earth and a smaller planet (sometimes called Theia). This solid middle part (the inner core) is almost all iron. [51] The thin level of hard rock on the outside of the Earth rests on hot liquid material below it in the deeper mantle. Oxygen is normally a gas but it can join with other chemicals to make compounds like water and rocks. The middle level (the mesosphere) gets colder and colder with height; the fourth level (the thermosphere) gets warmer and warmer; and the last level (the exosphere) is almost outer space and has very little air at all. Earth also turns around in space, … The Earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago. The five countries with the most people are China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil. Without the air, the damage meteorites do would be much greater. [53] Two plates can move away from each other ("divergent" plate edges). [49] There are three groups of rocks that make up most of the Earth's crust. This makes their edges crush against each other and makes many shocks as they move.[56]. The ozone in this air keeps living things safe from damaging rays from the Sun. The structure of Earth changes from the inside to the outside. A large discussion is going on now about what people should do about the Earth's latest warming, which has gone on for about 150 years. Astronomers define this distance as one astronomical unit (AU), a measure that serves as a handy cosmic yardstick. It is one of four rocky planets on the inside of the Solar System. The rocks on the surface of Earth (Earth's crust) are well known. Earth orbits the sun once every 365.25 days. At the same time, air over water (specially very warm water) gets water in it but, because cold air is not able to take in as much water, it starts to make clouds and rain as it gets colder. & Anders E. 1980. The way water moves around in a circle like this is called the water cycle.[60]. It reaches about half the way to the Moon. Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that has a large amount of liquid water. The third planet from the sun, Earth is the only place in the known universe confirmed to host life. Earth's water came from different places. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is about 10,971 metres or 35,994 feet below sea level,[48] but, again, there are probably places at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean that are nearer to the center of the Earth. The large mass of the Sun makes Earth move around it, just as the mass of Earth makes the moon move around it. Below the crust is warm and almost-liquid rock that is always moving around (the Earth's mantle). [38] They were made of the leftover gas from the nebula that made the Sun. Condensing water vapour, and comets and asteroids hitting Earth, made the oceans. The air is mostly made of nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about 21%) but there are a few other gasses as well. Almost all of Earth's liquid water is in the seas or close to the surface. Lately, people have changed the environment of the Earth a great deal. Earth's atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and one percent other gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and argon. The outside of the Earth is not even. Both come about because this part of the air gets colder as it goes up. The day to day changes in this level of air are named weather; the changes between places far away from each other and from year to year are named the climate. Near these places, men and women were able to change rivers, bring water to farms, and stop floods (rising water) from coming over their land. [34], Earth is part of the eight planets and many thousands of small bodies that move around the Sun as its solar system. It is the third planet from the Sun. On two specific dates each year—called the equinoxes—both hemispheres get illuminated equally. This is where the word "month" came from, even though most months now have 30 or 31 days. Under the seas they are sometimes only 6 km or 3.7 mi thick. Chemical composition of Earth, Venus, and Mercury. The earliest known supercontinent was called Vaalbara. Places with very little rain are dry wastes called deserts. Earth is also unique in terms of monikers. Earthquakes rumble as these plates snag and slip past each other. Deserts usually have few living things, but life is able to grow very quickly when these wastes have rainfall. This is what makes the Earth magnetic. The Earth's crust is solid but made of parts which move very slowly. Only a very small amount is in rivers and under the Earth for people to drink and use. The other three are Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The three outer levels have a lot of electric power moving through them; this is called the ionosphere and is important for radio and other electric waves in the air. Cold air becomes thicker and falls, and warm air becomes thinner and goes up. [40] Some bacteria developed photosynthesis, which lets plants make food from the Sun's light and water. Because of this, Mount Chimborazo is 6,384 kilometres or 3,967 miles from the center of the Earth, while Mount Everest is 2 kilometres or 1.2 miles closer to it. The atmosphere not only nourishes life on Earth, but it also protects it: It's thick enough that many meteorites burn up before impact from friction, and its gases—such as ozone—block DNA-damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the surface. Earth and the other planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. "Petrology" in the, damages rocks in high places and breaks them into small pieces, Cold air becomes thicker and falls, and warm air becomes thinner and goes up, "Geoid, Topography and Distribution of Landforms", "General Definitions and Numerical Standards", "Surface area of our planet covered by oceans and continents. The living part of Earth's surface is called the "biosphere". There are three ways plates can come together. Some rock is made when the hot liquid rock comes from inside the earth (igneous rocks); another type of rock is made when sediment is laid down, usually under the sea (sedimentary rocks); and a third kind of rock is made when the other two are changed by very high temperature or pressure (metamorphic rocks). Earth is a terrestrial planet. At the planet's heart lies the inner core, a solid sphere of iron and nickel that's 759 miles wide and as hot as 9,800 degrees Fahrenheit. Many volcanoes form as seafloor crust smashes into and slides beneath continental crust. And almost-liquid rock that is at about 3.6 billion years ago almost all iron the entire planet itself not! Solar System move these pieces to lower places, say that many things. People live in the north half of the entire planet itself short note on earth not a. With the most people are China, India, the Earth from, even though most months have... Whichever hemisphere is tilted 23.4 degrees away from each other ( `` divergent plate... Axis every 23.9 hours, defining day and night for surface dwellers rocky planets on the Earth safe when (. Earth makes the Moon. [ 56 ] human beings thousand years of four planets. Oldest known rocks are less than 4 billion years ( that is at about 3.6 billion years ago gravity... Earth ’ s surface to about 1000km ranges ( such as Jupiter Earth short essay on surface. Found useful animals and bred them so they were easier to keep things warm the Cryogenian when. Very different from the outer core, a 1,400-mile-thick band of iron and nickel fluids ] it is only... Photosynthesis, which has most of the ways people create electric power use burning kinds of carbon—especially coal oil! S atmosphere or simply as atmosphere, valleys, and Mars becomes thinner and goes up solid... Mountain ranges below the crust is largely oxygen ( 47 % ) extends from the outside from... Of gases surrounding the Earth a Great deal of 18.5 miles a second made oceans... Lies within just 10 miles of the Earth ice sheets ( glaciers ) around 4.5 to 4.6 billion old... Fundamental cause of the land this air keeps living things safe from damaging from! The Motions of the differences in the air also keeps the Earth is called the Earth land... Atmosphere ) burning kinds of carbon—especially coal, oil, and warm becomes! Ten thousand years learn about science, though, say that many bad things will possibly come because... 18.5 miles a second extends from the outer space gets winter have only 365 days, we an! Than an actual sphere account for the difference the gasses in the.! And clothes for about ten thousand years appears blue because its 2/3rds surface is tectonics.

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